1 As of August 9, 1999, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the world population to be 6,004,955,370. In contrast, the United Nations Fund for Population Activities estimated the world population to be 5,986,627,870, which varies from the U.S. estimate by 18,327,500.

2 Frank Furedi, Population and Development: A Critical Introduction. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997, p. 16.

3 Thomas Malthus. "A Summary View of the Principle of Population" in Three Essays on Population. New York: Mentor Books, 1960, pp. 38-40.

4 ibid., 39.

5 Furedi, 14.

6 Nathan Rosenberg, "The Impact of Technological Changes" in Resources and Population, eds. Bernardo Colombo, Paul Demeny, and Max Perutz. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996, p. 116.

7 Sophia Aguirre, unpublished paper. She derives much of this explanation from Julian L. Simon, The Ultimate Resource II. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996.

8 Furedi, 15-17.

9 Ibid., 17.

10 Ibid., 20.

11 Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb. New York: Ballantine Books, 1968.

12 Paul Ehrlich and Anne Ehrlich, The Population Explosion. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990. Then-Senator Albert Gore, Jr. gives his support in a quote on the dust-jacket of the book: "Paul and Anne Ehrlich point out that humankind has entered into a brand-new relationship with Planet Earth. For the first time, our numbers threaten the ecological system that supports life as we know it…. The time for action is due, and past due. The Ehrlichs have written the prescription…. If every candidate for public office were to read and understand this book, we would all live in a more peaceful, sane and secure world."

13 Lester Brown,Gary Gardner and Brian Halweil, Beyond Malthus: Sixteen Dimensions to the Population Problem. Washington DC: Worldwatch Institute, 1998. pp. 13-15.

14 United Nations Development Programme, The Human Development Report 1999. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 9.

15 World Bank, Knowledge for Development: The 1998/99 World Development Report. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 4-6.

16 Ehrlich and Ehrlich, The Population Explosion. p. 38.

17 Elinor Ostrom et al, "Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges," Science 284 (9 April 1999): 278-282.

18 Wayne Getz et al, "Sustaining Natural and Human Capital: Villagers and Scientists," Science 283 (19 March 1999): 1855-1856.

19 Simon, 127.

20 ibid., 131.

21 Charles Mann, "Crop Scientists Seek a New Revolution," Science 283 (15 January 1999): 310-314.

22 UNDP, The Human Development Report 1999, p. 9.

23 Warren Leary, "Research Yields Underused Source of Food in Africa: Grains," New York Times, 23 April 1996.

24 World Bank, World Development Report 1998/99, 4.

25 J.T. Winpenny, "Managing Water Scarcity for Water Security," (on-line document prepared for the FAO, accessed 12 August 1999); available from http://www.fao.org/ag/agl/aglw/webpub/scarcity.htm; Internet.

26 Carlos Cachan, "No habra escasez de agua si se evita el despilfarro," Aceprensa, 9 Diciembre 1998.

27 ibid., 3.

28 Simon, 131.

29 Charles Mann, "Crop Scientists Seek a New Revolution," Science, 312.

30"Sustainable Water Management" FAO World Food Summit Fact Sheet (on-line document accessed 12 August 1999); available at http://www.fao.org/wfs/fs/e/WatSus-e.htm; Internet.

31 Cachan, 2.

32 Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends, (on-line document accessed 14 August 1999); available at

http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/petroleum_issues_trends_1996/ENTIRE.PDF; Internet, 56.

33 ibid., 59.

34 Simon, 107-8.

35 Paul Waite, United States Climatological Chronology, (on-line document, accessed 15 August 1999); available at http://weather.nmsu.edu/USClimat.htm; Internet.

36 Dennis T. Avery, "Global Warming: A Boon for Mankind?" American Outlook (Spring 1998): 12-16.

37 H.H. Lamb, Climate, History and the Modern World. New York: Methuen, 1982.

38 Patrick J. Michaels, Sound and Fury: The Science and Politics of Global Warming. Washington DC: Cato Institute, 1992. p. 15.

39 Robert C. Cowen, "New Evidence Heats Up Climate Debate,’ Christian Science Monitor, 15 July 1999.

40 ibid.

41 Dian Gaffen, "Falling Satellites, Rising Temperatures?" Nature 394 (13 August 1998): 615-616.

42John Fialka, "Flat CO2 Emissions Give Experts Hope," Wall Street Journal, 2 August 1999.

43 Robert Stavins, "Clean Profits" Policy Review 48 (Spring 1989).

44 Simon, 304.

45 ibid, 59.

46 Rosenberg, 114.

47FAO, "Earth Summit +5: Progress on the Road from Rio," Progress Report, June 1997. Ch. 12.

48 FAO, "Land and Water Development." (online document accessed 16 August, 1999); available at http://www.fao.org/sd/rtdirect/rtre0007.htm; Internet.

49UNFPA, "Key Actions for Further Implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development," 11 July 1999, Document A/S-21/5/Add.1 (1999).

50 Edwin Kiester, Jr, "A Town Buries the Axe." Smithsonian (July 1999),

51 John Fialka "Flat CO2 Emissions Give Experts Hope." Wall Street Journal (2 August 1999).

53 UNDP, The Human Development Report 1999, 9.

54 ibid., 9.