The Society of the Spectacle
by Guy Debord
Originally published in 1967
Chapter 2 "Commodity as Spectacle"
The commodity can only be understood in its undistorted essence
when it becomes the universal category of society as a whole. Only in this
context does the reification produced by commodity relations assume decisive
importance both for the objective evolution of society and for the stance
adopted by men towards it. Only then does the commodity become crucial
for the subjugation of men's consciousness to the forms in which this reification
finds expression.... As labor is progressively rationalized and mechanized
man's lack of will is reinforced by the way in which his activity becomes
less and less active and more and more contemplative.
Lukacs, History and Class Consciousness
In the essential movement of the spectacle, which consists of taking up
all that existed in human activity in a fluid state so as to possess
it in a congealed state as things which have become the exclusive value
by their formulation in negative of lived value, we recognize our
old enemy, the commodity, who knows so well how to seem at first
glance something trivial and obvious, while on the contrary it is so complex
and so full of metaphysical subtleties.
This is the principle of commodity fetishism, the domination of society
by "intangible as well as tangible things," which reaches its absolute
fulfillment in the spectacle, where the tangible world is replaced by a
selection of images which exist above it, and which simultaneously impose
themselves as the tangible par excellence.
The world at once present and absent which the spectacle makes visible
is the world of the commodity dominating all that is lived. The world of
the commodity is thus shown for what it is, because its movement
is identical to the estrangement of men among themselves and in
relation to their global product.
The loss of quality so evident at all levels of spectacular language, from
the objects it praises to the behavior it regulates, merely translates
the fundamental traits of the real production which brushes reality aside:
the commodity-form is through and through equal to itself, the category
of the quantitative. The quantitative is what the commodity-form develops,
and it can develop only within the quantitative.
This development which excludes the qualitative is itself, as development,
subject to qualitative change: the spectacle indicates that it has crossed
the threshold of its own abundance; this is as yet true only locally
at some points, but is already true on the universal scale which is the
original context of the commodity, a context which its practical movement,
encompassing the Earth as a world market, has verified.
The development of productive forces has been the real unconscious history
which built and modified the conditions of existence of human groups as
conditions of survival, and extended those conditions: the economic basis
of all their undertakings. In a primitive economy, the commodity sector
represented a surplus of survival. The production of commodities, which
implies the exchange of varied products among independent producers, could
for a long time remain craft production, contained within a marginal economic
function where its quantitative truth was still masked. However, where
commodity production met the social conditions of large scale commerce
and of the accumulation of capitals, it seized total domination over the
economy. The entire economy then became what the commodity had shown itself
to be in the course of this conquest: a process of quantitative development.
This incessant expansion of economic power in the form of the commodity,
which transformed human labor into commodity-labor, into wage-labor,
cumulatively led to an abundance in which the primary question of survival
is undoubtedly resolved, but in such a way that it is constantly rediscovered;
it is continually posed again each time at a higher level. Economic growth
frees societies from the natural pressure which required their direct struggle
for survival, but at that point it is from their liberator that they are
not liberated. The independence of the commodity is extended to
the entire economy aver which it rules. The economy transforms the world,
but transforms it only into a world of economy. The pseudo-nature within
which human labor is alienated demands that it be served ad infinitum,
and this service, being judged and absolved only by itself, in fact acquires
the totality of socially permissible efforts and projects as its servants.
The abundance of commodities, namely, of commodity relations, can be nothing
more than increased survival.
The commodity's domination was at first exerted aver the economy in an
occult manner; the economy itself, the material basis of social life, remained
unperceived and not understood, like the familiar which is not necessarily
known. In a society where the concrete commodity is rare or unusual, money,
apparently dominant, presents itself as an emissary armed with full powers
who speaks in the name of an unknown force. With the industrial revolution,
the division of labor in manufactures, and mass production far the world
market, the commodity appears in fact as a power which comes to occupy
social life. It is then that political economy takes shape, as the dominant
science and the science of domination.
The spectacle is the moment when the commodity has attained the total
occupation of social life. Not only is the relation to the commodity
visible but it is all one sees: the world one sees is its world. Modern
economic production extends its dictatorship extensively and intensively.
In the least industrialized places, its reign is already attested by a
few star commodities and by the imperialist domination imposed by regions
which are ahead in the development of productivity. In the advanced regions,
social space is invaded by a continuous superimposition of geological layers
of commodities. At this point in the "second industrial revolution," alienated
consumption becomes for the masses a duty supplementary to alienated production.
It is all the sold labor of a society which globally becomes the
total commodity for which the cycle must be continued. For this
to be done, the total commodity has to return as a fragment to the fragmented
individual, absolutely separated from the productive forces operating as
a whole. Thus it is here that the specialized science of domination must
in turn specialize: it fragments itself into sociology, psychotechnics,
cybernetics, semiology, etc., watching over the self-regulation of every
level of the process.
Whereas in the primitive phase of capitalist accumulation, "political economy
sees in the proletarian only the worker" who must receive
the minimum indispensable for the conservation of his labor power, without
ever seeing him "in his leisure and humanity," these ideas of the ruling
class are reversed as soon as the production of commodities reaches a level
of abundance which requires a surplus of collaboration from the worker.
This worker, suddenly redeemed from the total contempt which is clearly
shown him by all the varieties of organization and supervision of production,
finds himself every day, outside of production and in the guise of a consumer,
seemingly treated as an adult, with zealous politeness. At this point the
humanism of the commodity takes charge of the worker's "leisure
and humanity," simply because now political economy can and must dominate
these spheres as political economy. Thus the "perfected denial of
man" has taken charge of the totality of human existence.
The spectacle is a permanent opium war which aims to make people identify
goods with commodities and satisfaction with survival that increases according
to its own laws. But if consumable survival is something which must always
increase, this is because it continues to contain privation. If
there is nothing beyond increasing survival, if there is no point where
it might stop growing, this is not because it is beyond privation, but
because it is enriched privation.
Automation, the most advanced sector of modern industry as well as the
model which perfectly sums up its practice, drives the commodity world
toward the following contradiction: the technical equipment which objectively
eliminates labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commodity
and as the only source of the commodity. If the social labor (time) engaged
by the society is not to diminish because of automation (or any other less
extreme form of increasing the productivity of labor), then new jobs have
to be created. Services, the tertiary sector, swell the ranks of the army
of distribution and are a eulogy to the current commodities; the additional
forces which are mobilized just happen to be suitable for the organization
of redundant labor required by the artificial needs for such commodities.
Exchange value could arise only as an agent of use value, but its victory
by means of its own weapons created the conditions for its autonomous domination.
Mobilizing all human use and establishing a monopoly over its satisfaction,
exchange value has ended up by directing use. The process of exchange
became identified with all possible use and reduced use to the mercy of
exchange. Exchange value is the condottiere of use value who ends
up waging the war for himself.
The tendency of use value to fall, this constant of capitalist economy,
develops a new form of privation within increased survival: the new privation
is not far removed from the old penury since it requires most men to participate
as wage workers in the endless pursuit of its attainment, and since everyone
knows he must submit or die. The reality of this blackmail accounts for
the general acceptance of the illusion at the heart of the consumption
of modern commodities: use in its most impoverished form (food and lodging)
today exists only to the extent that it is imprisoned in the illusory wealth
of increased survival. The real consumer becomes a consumer of illusions.
The commodity is this factually real illusion, and the spectacle is its
In the inverted reality of the spectacle, use value (which was implicitly
contained in exchange value) must now be explicitly proclaimed precisely
because its factual reality is eroded by the overdeveloped commodity economy
and because counterfeit life requires a pseudo-justification.
The spectacle is the other side of money: it is the general abstract equivalent
of all commodities. Money dominated society as the representation of general
equivalence, namely, of the exchangeability of different goods whose uses
could not be compared. The spectacle is the developed modern complement
of money where the totality of the commodity world appears as a whole,
as a general equivalence for what the entire society can be and can do.
The spectacle is the money which one only looks at, because in the
spectacle the totality of use is already exchanged for the totality of
abstract representation. The spectacle is not only the servant of pseudo-use,
it is already in itself the pseudo-use of life.
At the moment of economic abundance, the concentrated result of
social labor becomes visible and subjugates all reality to appearance,
which is now its product. Capital is no longer the invisible center which
directs the mode of production: its accumulation spreads it all the way
to the periphery in the form of tangible objects. The entire expanse of
society is its portrait.
The victory of the autonomous economy must at the same time be its defeat.
The forces which it has unleashed eliminate the economic necessity
which was the immutable basis of earlier societies. When economic necessity
is replaced by the necessity for boundless economic development, the satisfaction
of primary human needs is replaced by an uninterrupted fabrication of pseudo-needs
which are reduced to the single pseudo-need of maintaining the reign of
the autonomous economy. The autonomous economy permanently breaks away
from fundamental need to the extent that it emerges from the social
unconscious which unknowingly depended on it. "All that is conscious
wears out. What is unconscious remains unalterable. But once freed, does
it not fall to ruins in turn?" (Freud).
As soon as society discovers that it depends on the economy, the economy,
in fact, depends on society. This subterranean force, which grew until
it appeared sovereign, has lost its power. That which was the economic
it must become the I. The subject can emerge only from society,
namely from the struggle within society. The subject's possible existence
depends on the outcome of the class struggle which shows itself to be the
product and the producer of the economic foundation of history.
The consciousness of desire and the desire for consciousness are identically
the project which, in its negative form, seeks the abolition of classes,
the workers' direct possession of every aspect of their activity. Its opposite
is the society of the spectacle, where the commodity contemplates itself
in a world it has created.
3 Unity and Division Within Appearance